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Saturday, April 30, 2011

Private Equity Firms in Australia

The top leading private equity firms in Australia include Quadrant Private Equity, Pacific Equity Partners, Archer Capital, CHAMP, among others.

Quadrant Private Equity is one of the leading private equity investment providers in Australia. Quadrant invests in established, profitable growth orientated businesses.

Pacific Equity Partners (PEP) is a leading Australasian private equity firm

Debtors Turnover Ratio Examples

Definition: Debtors turnover ratio (or Accounts receivable turnover ratio) indicates how long, on average, people take to pay a firm for their purchases. Generally the higher the ratio, the more efficient is the management of debtors.

Debtors Turnover Ratio = Net Credit Sales / Average Trade Debtors
Debtors Turnover Ratio = Total Sales / Debtors

Example 1:
XYZ Ltd has the following

Investment Companies in Germany

The leading investment firms/companies in Germany include HANSAINVEST, HANNOVER Finanz Group, Universal-Investment, to name a few.

HANSAINVEST Hanseatische Investment-GmbH is a SIGNAL IDUNA Group company. It was established in 1969 and was one of the first investment companies in Germany to belong to an insurance group. It offers clients its extensive knowledge in both securities investments and

Friday, April 29, 2011

Stock Brokers in Taiwan

Following are some of the leading stock brokers in Taiwan:

Yuanta Financial Holdings - It is a comprehensive financial services firm with dominance in securities investment services. It was formed from a merger between Fuhwa and Taiwan's largest broker, Yuanta Core Pacific Securities, in 2007. Yuanta's businesses include: securities finance, securities, futures, investment trust, banking,

EBIT Formula & Example

Definition: Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) is used to measure the company's profitability that excludes income tax and interest expenses. It is easier to calculate EBIT by subtracting all the total operating costs from the total profits of the firm.

Earnings before interest and tax= Sales – Cost of goods sold – Operating expenses
EBIT = Operating Revenue – Operating

Private Equity Firms in Singapore

CMIA Capital Partners and SEAVI Advent are amongst the leading private equity firms in Singapore.

CMIA Capital Partners is a leading private equity firm focused on investment opportunities in China and Southeast Asia. It is primarily focused on Growth Capital opportunities, and has also financed Greenfield, Buyouts and Privatizations selectively.

Founded in 2003 and headquartered in Singapore,

Thursday, April 28, 2011

Top Investment Banks in Indonesia

Following are amongst the top investment banks in Indonesia:

PT Bank DBS Indonesia (DBSI) - It provides a broad range of investment banking services in collaboration with DBS Vickers Securities Indonesia and DBS Bank. DBSI offers a full range of banking services including wealth management, corporate and consumer lending, trade finance, time deposits, current accounts, savings accounts, money

Inventory Turnover Ratio Examples

Definition: Inventory Turnover Ratio (ITR, also known as Rate of Stock Turnover) is used to measure the rate in which the company is able to obtain cash from the sale of inventory. A high ratio will indicate an efficient management of inventory.

Inventory Turnover Ratio = Cost of goods sold / Average inventory held
ITR = Cost of goods sold / Closing inventory
ITR = Net Sales /

Private Equity Firms in Sweden

The leading private equity firms in Sweden include Accent Equity Partners, IK Investment Partners, Altor Equity Partners, among others.

Accent is a group of private equity funds focusing on investments in lower mid-market buyout and later-stage expansion capital transactions in the Nordic region. Headquartered in Stockholm, Accent Equity Partners, who act as investment advisors to all Accent

Wednesday, April 27, 2011

Most Secure Banks

The best and most secure banks around the world include Santander, United Community Bank, Farm Bureau Bank, Wolverine Bank, among others.

Santander is one of the safest and most secure banks in the world. It received a AA rating from Standard & Poors’ and Fitch, making it one of the highest rated banks in the world. In 2010, Euromoney magazine awarded Santander as the “Best Bank in the UK”.

Interest Coverage Ratio Example

Definition: Interest Coverage Ratio (ICR) is used to assess whether the firm has the ability to pay its interest expense. It determines the number of times interest expense is earned from operating profits. A lower ratio means less earnings are available to meet interest payments and thus the company's debt burden is higher. It is also known as debt service ratio.

Interest Coverage

Top Bank Holding Companies in US

Bank of America is the largest bank holding company in the United States by assets. It is also one of the world's largest financial institutions, serving individual consumers, small and middle market businesses and large corporations with a comprehensive range of banking, investing, asset management, as well as other financial and risk-management products and services. Bank of America Corporation

Tuesday, April 26, 2011

Best Trade Finance Banks

Following are some of the best trade finance banks around the world:

BNP Paribas - It is a European leader in global banking and financial services. Global Finance Magazine named BNP Paribas 'Best Trade Finance Bank' 2007 in Europe and in France. In addition, it is ranked 11th of the world leading companies, 1st among French enterprises, 1st worldwide in terms of assets, 7th in the global

Price Earnings Ratio (P/E) Examples

Definition: Price Earnings Ratio (P/E) is calculated by dividing the market price of a stock by its most recent Earnings Per Share (EPS) value. It indicates how long the earnings will take to recover the cost of the shares. The higher the P/E ratio, the more the market is willing to pay for each dollar of company's earnings because it shows higher growth expectations.

Price Earnings

Main Types of Stocks

Following are the different types of stocks available:

Common stock (or Ordinary shares) - It represents a form of corporate equity ownership. Common stockholders have voting rights in the meeting. However there is no fixed dividend paid out to the holders and so their returns are uncertain and determined by the directors of the company.

Concentrated stock - It is an equity making up a

Monday, April 25, 2011

Stock Brokers in Boston

Following are some of the leading stock brokers with offices in Boston, Massachusetts, USA:

Capitol Securities - It is an investment services group providing services through affiliates Capitol Securities Management, Inc., and Capitol Securities & Associates, Inc. Capitol Securities Management, Inc. provides assistance in the following areas: Investments, Stocks, Bonds, Mutual Funds, Investment

Earnings Yield Formula & Example

Definition: Earnings Yield is the ratio of earnings per share (EPS) to the stock market price. It can also be calculated by taking the inverse of the P/E ratio and turning it into a percentage. A high earnings yield indicates the stock is undervalued, and a low earnings yield will indicate the stock is overvalued.

Earnings Yield = (Earnings per share / Market price per share) * 100%

Top Asset Management Firms in UK

The top leading asset management firms/companies in the UK are RLAM, Old Mutual Asset Managers (UK) Ltd, Hargreaves Lansdown, Aberdeen Asset Management PLC, among others.

RLAM is one of the UK's leading asset management companies, investing on behalf of a broad range of pension fund, intermediary and private clients. The company has a proven track record of delivering investment management

Sunday, April 24, 2011

Advantages and Disadvantages of Unit Trust

The Advantages of investing in unit trusts:

1) This is a good investment option for those who do not have much financial knowledge on investment because unit trust is handled by a professional fund management or expert. The experts will deal with all matters and will of course charge you for such service.

2) This is a method for individual investor to get together and make large investments as

Earnings Per Share Formula & Example

Definition: Earnings Per Share (EPS) is a measure of profitability and it allows shareholders to compare one year's earnings with that of another year. It is calculated by dividing the net profit after taxes and preferred dividend by the total number of equity shares.

Earnings per share = (Net profit after tax − Preference dividend) / No. of ordinary shares issued
EPS = Earnings

Largest Banks in New Mexico

The top largest banks in New Mexico are Los Alamos National Bank, Bank of Albuquerque, First National Bank of Santa Fe, Pioneer Bank, among others.

Los Alamos National Bank (LANB), a subsidiary of Trinity Capital Corporation, opened in 1963. It is the largest independent financial institution in New Mexico. LANB has won the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. In 2007 it received the Ethics

Saturday, April 23, 2011

Advantages and Disadvantages of Swaps

Swap is an instrument used for the exchange of stream of cash flows to reduce risk.

The advantages of swaps are as follows:

1) Swap is generally cheaper. There is no upfront premium and it reduces transactions costs.

2) Swap can be used to hedge risk, and long time period hedge is possible.

3) It provides flexible and maintains informational advantages.

4) It has longer term than futures or

Dividend Payout Ratio Formula & Example

Definition: Dividend Payout Ratio (DPR) is used to measure the extent to which earnings per share have been used for paying dividends to stockholders. A low payout ratio can indicate that a company’s dividend is small compared to its earnings.

Dividend Payout Ratio = Dividend per Share / Earnings per Share

Example 1:
TTC Company paid out $2.10 per share in annual dividends and had

Stock Brokers in Minnesota

Following are some of the leading stock brokers with offices in Minnesota, USA:

RBC Wealth Management - It is a division of RBC Capital Markets Corporation, which is one of the nation's largest full-service securities firms and a member of the New York Stock Exchange and other major securities exchanges, as well as the Securities Investor Protection Corp.

Edward Jones - It was the

Friday, April 22, 2011

Advantages and Disadvantages of Preferred Stock

The Advantages of Preferred Stocks (or preference shares) are as follows:

1) The main benefit for the issue of preferred stock is that it raises capital for a company without sacrificing the control of company.

2) It is useful for corporate restructuring or reorganization (Corporate restructuring is the process of reconstructing a whole organization or certain divisions of a corporation).

3) A

Return on Assets (ROA) Ratio

Return on Assets (ROA) ratio is used to measure the amount of profit a company made for each $1 of assets owned. It is also known as Return on Total Assets (ROTA).

Return on Assets = Net Income / Average Total Assets
ROA = Net Profit Margin * Asset Turnover

Example 1:
AUT Ltd has $40,000 of net income after tax for the year ended 31 December 2010. During the same period its total

Top Mutual Fund Companies in UK

Fidelity is one of the largest mutual fund companies in the world. Fidelity International launched its first mutual funds for UK retail investors in December 1979. The top-performing Fidelity Special Situations Fund is backed by the in-depth analysis of its global team of investment professionals. It is the most successful mutual fund in the UK since its launch (Source: Morningstar).

Jupiter is

Thursday, April 21, 2011

Stockbrokers in India

Some of the most popular stockbrokers in India include Kotak Securities, Angel Broking Ltd, Composite Securities Limited, India Infoline (IIFL), Ventura Securities Ltd, Karvy group, PCS Securities Ltd, among others.

View below for more information:

Top Stock Brokers in Delhi
JV Capital Services offers clients a different trading and investment experience with research backed advice, reliable

Dividend Yield Ratio Examples

Definition: Dividend Yield Ratio is a financial ratio used to measure the rate of return on an investment.

Dividend Yield Ratio = (Dividend Per Share / Market Price Per Share) * 100%

Example 1:
Calculate the Dividend Yield Ratio, given the following figures:
Ordinary share dividend $20,000
Preference share dividend  $3,000
Ordinary shares of $1 each: $40,000
Preference shares of $1

Top Finance Companies in UK

Following are the top leading finance companies in the UK:

Close Asset Finance - It is one of the leading finance companies in the UK, and is primarily concerned with providing finance for capital assets. Close Asset Finance Ltd is proud of its financial pedigree as a member of the Close Brothers Group, which is an independent merchant-banking group listed on the London Stock Exchange. Founded

Wednesday, April 20, 2011

Top Mutual Fund Companies in Canada

Following are the top leading mutual fund companies in Canada:

Mackenzie Investments - It is a leading Canadian mutual fund company with strong growth, market share and a commitment to customer satisfaction. The firm is a member of the IGM Financial Inc. group of companies. Mackenzie Investments has been recognized for industry leading fund performance at the prestigious 2011 Lipper® Fund Award

Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) Ratio

Definition: Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) is a financial ratio used to measure the profitability of a firm. It indicates the efficiency of the capital utilized to generate earnings. ROCE is also known as "Return on capital invested" or "Percentage return on capital".

Return on Capital Employed = (Profit before interest/Capital employed) * 100%
ROCE = (Profit before interest and

Leading Finance Companies in Europe

BNP Paribas Personal Finance and Volkswagen Financial Services AG are amongst the leading finance companies in Europe.

BNP Paribas Personal Finance is the French and European market leader in personal loans. BNP Paribas Personal Finance is the first multi-specialist to offer a comprehensive range of personal credit products, from automobile loans to in-store credit, personal loans, credit cards,

Tuesday, April 19, 2011

Redemption of Debentures

Meaning: Repayment of the amount borrowed by a company is called redemption of debentures. The amount required for the redemption can come from the following ways:
- Out of the profits.
- Through a sinking fund set up for the purpose of such redemption.
- Out of the proceeds of new shares/debentures issue.

Redemption may be at par, at a discount, or at a premium. For example:
(1) A denture loan

Operating Ratio Formula & Example

Definition: Operating ratio is the ratio of cost of sales plus operating expenses to net turnover. It is an indicator of the operational efficiency of a business, a low operating ratio indicates high operating profit.

Operating Ratio = [(Cost of sales + Operating expenses) / Net sales] * 100%

Example 1:
Calculate operating ratio given the following figures:
Cost of sales is $300,000,

Asset Management Firms in Canada

Following are the top asset management firms in Canada:

TD Asset Management Inc. (TDAM) - It is one of the biggest asset management firms in Canada. It was named "Morningstar Fixed Income Fund Manager of the Year" at the 16th annual Canadian Investment Awards in Toronto.

Connor, Clark & Lunn Financial Group - It is one of Canada’s largest and fastest growing asset management firms. It offers a

Monday, April 18, 2011

Strongest Banks in Europe

UBS, HSBC and Banco Santander are amongst the strongest banks in Europe.

Headquartered in Zurich and Basel, Switzerland, UBS is present in all major financial centers worldwide and has offices in over 50 countries. The addition of the Interhandel's capital resources, which propelled UBS into the top spot among Swiss banks in 1968, has made UBS, in terms of capital, one of the strongest banks in

Debt to Asset Ratio Formula & Example

Definition: Debt to Asset Ratio is calculated by dividing the firm’s total liabilities by its total assets. It indicates the percentage of a firm's assets that are financed via debt.

Debt to Asset Ratio = Total Debt / Total Assets
(Note: total debt is the sum of long-term liabilities and current liabilities)

Example 1:
Penn Ltd has $400,000 in assets, $80,000 in liabilities, and

Top Mutual Fund Companies in Europe

The top leading mutual fund companies in Europe include DWS Investments, UBS, J.P. Morgan Asset Management, to name a few.

DWS Investments is the global mutual fund arm of Deutsche Bank's Asset Management division. Founded in Germany in 1956, DWS is a key local player in Europe's most important markets. It is the largest mutual fund company in Germany, and one of the leading retail mutual fund

Sunday, April 17, 2011

Strongest Banks in Africa

Finbank holds 70% of AGIB (Arab Gambian Islamic Bank) shares, according to Africa Business Magazine, is the 30th strongest bank in Africa. It offers a broad range of banking products and financial services to corporate and retail customers through a variety of delivery channels, specialized subsidiaries and affiliates in the areas of Investment Banking, Retail Banking and Private Banking.

Expense Ratio Formula & Example

Definition: Expense Ratios show the relationship of various expenses to net sales. It is calculated by dividing a particular expense or group of expense with the net turnover. The lower the expense ratio, the larger is the profitability.

Overhead Expense Ratio =  (Overhead expenses / Net sales) * 100%

Example 1:
Calculate expense ratios given the following figures:

Top Private Equity Firms in Canada

The top leading private equity firms in Canada include BEST Funds, TriWest, Onex Corporation, Teachers’ Private Capital, among others.

Founded in 1996, BEST Funds is a leading Canadian venture capital and private equity firm headquartered in Toronto. BEST provides both equity and debt financing.

Founded in 1998, TriWest is one of Canada's leading private equity firms. It makes significant

Saturday, April 16, 2011

Top Mutual Fund Companies in Pakistan

Following are amongst the top largest mutual fund companies in Pakistan:

Al Meezan Mutual Fund Limited (AMMF) - It was the first fund launched by Al Meezan Investments and is one of the oldest mutual funds in the private sector. The company was listed on the Karachi Stock Exchange on September 16, 1996 as a closed ended mutual fund. Its objective is to carry on the business of a closed ended

Financial Ratio Analysis

Financial ratios are used to measure a company's financial strengths and weaknesses, as well as the profitability of a business. Investors can use financial ratios to evaluate the performance of a company by comparing them to others in the same industry. For instance, the dividend payout ratio can be used to figure out what percentage of the company's earnings are being paid out to shareholders

Private Equity Firms in Europe

The most prestigious private equity firms in Europe include Charterhouse Capital Partners, Candover, BC Partners, Bridgepoint, Doughty Hanson & Co, among others.

Charterhouse Capital Partners is one of the most successful private equity firms in Europe. The firm leads and invests in large European buy-outs and has been doing so since the early days of the buy-out market in the 1980's. Over the

Friday, April 15, 2011

Top Mutual Fund Companies in Philippines

Following are some of the top leading mutual fund companies in the Philippines:

Philequity Management, Inc. (PEMI) - It is an investment management company established in 1993. PEMI is proud to be the investment manager and principal distributor of Philequity Fund, Inc. (PEFI), the Philippines' best performing equity mutual fund. The company has been awarded by the Investment Company Association

Advantages of Ratio Analysis

Following are the main advantages of Financial Ratio Analysis:

1) Ratios are easy to understand by all users.

2) It is a very useful technique for comparison purpose. Changes in ratios over time can indicate the firm's performance, and it can also be used to compare with businesses in similar industries.

3) The calculation of profitability ratios can help to measure the profitability and

Top Canadian Investment Companies

The top leading investment firms/companies in Canada include Dynamic Funds, CI Investments, Connor, Clark & Lunn Investment Management Ltd., among others.

Dynamic Funds is a leading Canadian investment firm established in Montreal in 1957. It provides a complete range of products and services, spanning every major sector, geographic region and investment discipline. Dynamic's products include

Thursday, April 14, 2011

Top Mutual Fund Companies in India

Some of the leading mutual fund companies in India include SBI MF, TATA, Birla Sun Life Mutual Fund, Sundaram BNP Paribas Mutual, UTI Mutual Funds, among others.

SBI Mutual Fund (SBI MF) is one of the largest mutual funds in the country and has an enviable track record in judicious investments and consistent wealth creation. SBI Mutual is the first bank-sponsored fund to launch an offshore fund

Largest Banks in New Jersey

The top largest banks in New Jersey include Hudson City Savings Bank, Valley National Bank, Investors Savings Bank, The Provident Bank of New Jersey, among others.

Hudson City Savings Bank is among the top twenty-five banks and the largest thrift in the country. Forbes has named Hudson City "The Best- Managed Bank in America" for both 2007 and 2008. Hudson City, the largest savings bank

Limitations of Financial Ratio Analysis

Following are some of the limitations of Financial Ratio Analysis:

1) Ratio analysis indicates only the areas of strengths and weaknesses, without investigating the causes.

2) Different companies can apply different accounting policies. Thus the ratio of one company can not always be compared with that of another company.

3) Ratios are calculated based on outdated information presented in the

Wednesday, April 13, 2011

Stock Market Courses and Colleges

Want to learn how to make money by trading stocks? Following are the leading colleges offering a range of stock market courses for beginners:

The Sharemarket College Pty Ltd (Australia) - All courses are delivered by trained and experienced professionals who trade the financial markets on a daily basis. Students can attend face to face workshops, it allows for more interaction and clarification

Debt to Income Ratio Example

Definition: Debt to Income (DTI) Ratio is used to calculate the percentage of a consumer's monthly income that goes toward paying debts, which can include certain taxes, fees, insurance premiums, car loans, credit card payments, etc.


Debt to Income = Monthly fixed expenses / Gross monthly income

Example 1:
If you have Yearly Gross Income of $24,000 and Monthly liabilities of $200.

10 Largest Banks in New York

JPMorgan Chase is the largest bank holding company in the United States. In 2000, J.P. Morgan & Co. merged with Chase Manhattan Corp., in effect combining four of the biggest and oldest money center banking institutions in New York City (J.P. Morgan, Chase, Chemical and Manufacturers Hanover) into one firm known as J.P. Morgan Chase & Co.

M&T Bank is a subsidiary of M&T Bank Corporation and

Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Advantages and Disadvantages of Forwards

Forward contract is a non-standardized contract between two parties to buy or sell an asset at a specified time at an agreed price.

The advantages of forward contracts are as follows:

1) They can be matched against the time period of exposure as well as for the cash size of the exposure.

2) Forwards are tailor made and can be written for any amount and term.

3) It offers a complete hedge.


Gross Profit Ratio Formula & Example

Definition: Gross Profit Ratio is the ratio of gross profit to net turnover expressed as a percentage. It is also known as "Gross profit as a percentage of net turnover" or "Gross profit percentage/margin".

GP Ratio = (Gross profit / Net sales) * 100%

Example 1:
Kent Ltd has a total sales of $700,000, Sales returns $30,000, and Cost of goods sold $500,000. Calculate GP ratio.


Top Largest Banks in Maine

The top largest banks in the state of Maine include Bangor Savings Bank, TD Bank, Camden National Bank, Kennebunk Savings, among others.

Bangor Savings Bank is Maine’s largest independent bank, offering a full range of financial services to commercial, business and retail customers. It has been named as one of 2010’s Best Places to Work in Maine, by the Society for Human Resource Management (

Monday, April 11, 2011

Stock Brokers in Nagpur

Anagram Capital Ltd. and Kotak Securities Ltd. are amongst the leading stock brokers in Nagpur.

Anagram Capital Ltd. is amongst the leading retail broking houses in India. It offers a wide range of services for the discerning equity investor, in addition to online account access and real time trading. The company is part of the Edelweiss Group. Edelweiss is one of the leading integrated

Net Profit Ratio Formula & Example

Definition: Net Profit Ratio (also known as Net profit margin/percentage) is the ratio of net profit to net sales expressed as a percentage.

Net Profit Ratio = (Net profit / Net sales) * 100%

Example 1:
Vincent Ltd. has a total sales of $300,000, Returns inwards $20,000, Cost of goods sold $70,000, and Operating expenses $50,000. Calculate NP ratio.

Net sales = 300,000 -

Top Largest Banks in Minnesota

The top largest banks in the state of Minnesota include KleinBank, TCF Banks, Bremer Bank, Stearns Bank, among others.

KleinBank is Minnesota's largest family-owned state bank with solid ratings for strength and safety. The Tonka Times Magazine has announced their 1st Annual Compass Award winners for 2010. KleinBank has been voted by readers as their choice for a Business Bank.

TCF Banks are

Stock Brokers in Japan

Some of the leading stock brokers in Japan include Mizuho Securities Co., Ltd., Daiwa Securities Group Inc., Nikko Cordial Securities Inc, to name a few.

Mizuho Securities Co., Ltd. is a registered financial investment firm, formed through the merger of Shinko Securities, and the former Mizuho Securities. The company has Association Membership in Japan Securities Dealers Association; Japan

Sunday, April 10, 2011

Advantages of Convertible Bond Issue

Convertible bonds are company-issued bonds that can be converted into shares at some point in the future. This type of investment can offer many benefits/advantages such as the follows:

1) A convertible bond offers interest, known as a yield, to investors. The longer you hold the bond, the higher your yield rate will be. Such interest is paid to the investor even if the share price does not rise

Sales to Capital Employed Ratio

Definition: Sales to Capital Employed Ratio is used to measure the firm's ability to generate sales revenue by utilizing its assets. A higher ratio is preferable to lower one (retail companies such as supermarkets tend to have higher ratios).

Sales to Capital Employed Ratio = (Sales / Capital Employed ) * 100%

Universal Ltd has the following data:
Land and buildings $500,000

Top Largest Banks in Maryland

The Top Largest Banks in Maryland include Sandy Spring Bancorp, Eastern Savings Bank, Community Bank of Tri-County, The Columbia Bank, among others.

Sandy Spring Bancorp is the oldest and largest publicly traded banking company headquartered and operating in Maryland. It was founded in 1868 and offers a broad range of commercial banking, retail banking and trust services through its community

Investment Companies in Pakistan

The top leading investment companies/firms in Pakistan include the Pakistan Kuwait Investment Company (Private) Ltd, Pak Brunei Investment Company, JS Global Capital, among others.

Pakistan Kuwait Investment Company (Private) Limited (PKIC) is the leading Development Financial Institution (DFI) engaged in investment and development banking activities in Pakistan. It was the first DFI of its kind

Saturday, April 9, 2011

Stock Brokers in Johannesburg

The leading stock brokers in Johannesburg (South Africa) include Absa Stockbrokers (Pty) Limited, PSG Online, Thebe Securities Ltd, among others.

Absa Stockbrokers (Pty) Limited is an independent stockbroking company registered with the JSE Ltd. It is a member of the South African Institute of Stockbrokers and as such subscribe to the institute's code of ethics. Absa Stockbrokers Online Share

Debt to Equity Ratio Formula & Example

Definition: Debt to Equity Ratio (D/E) is a financial ratio used to measure the relationship between the capital contributed by creditors and the capital contributed by shareholders. The ratio is also known as Risk, Gearing or Leverage.

D/E = Total Debt (liabilities)/ Total Equity
* Sometimes only long-term debt is used instead of total liabilities in the calculation.

Example 1:

Top Largest Banks in Michigan

The top largest banks in Michigan include Flagstar Bank, Citizens Republic Bancorp, Inc., Chemical Bank, Macatawa Bank, among others.

Flagstar Bancorp, the holding company of Flagstar Bank, is the largest savings bank headquartered in the Midwest, with $16.4 billion in total assets at June 30, 2009. Flagstar offers a broad range of products and services for consumers and businesses, all

Bangalore Stock Exchange (BgSE)

Established in 1963, Bangalore Stock Exchange (BgSE) is the one of the major stock exchanges in India. It has been proactive in keeping pace with emerging technological and financial market trends and is fully computerized.

BgSE is the first stock exchange in South India to start electronic trading of securities. The Exchange launched its own BEST (Bangalore Electronic Securities Trading), its

Friday, April 8, 2011

Investment Companies in Australia

The top leading investment companies and firms in Australia are Australian Foundation Investment Company, Argo Investments Limited, Australian United Investment Company Limited, among others.

Australian Foundation Investment Company (AFIC) specialises in investing in Australian equities. It is Australia’s largest listed investment company with a market capitalisation of $4.76 billion (as at 30

Capital Gearing Ratio Formula & Example

Definition: Capital Gearing Ratio is used to analyze the capital structure of a firm. It indicates the relationship between various types of securities and capitalization such as debentures, preference share, reserves, etc. High geared means lower proportion of equity, while low geared means higher proportion of equity.

Capital Gearing Ratio = Equity / Fixed Interest Bearing Funds

Largest Banks in Massachusetts

The top largest banks in Massachusetts are Eastern Bank, Middlesex Savings Bank, Salem Five Bank, State Street Bank and Trust Company, Berkshire Bank, among others.

Eastern Bank, headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts offers banking, investments and insurance all under one roof. It is the largest independent, mutually owned bank in New England. Its subsidiaries are Eastern Insurance, the largest

Top Asset Management Firms in India

Following are the top leading asset management firms/companies in India:

Reliance Capital - It is one of India's leading and most valuable financial services companies in the private sector. The company has interests in asset management and mutual fund; life and general insurance; commercial finance; stock broking; depository services; private equity and proprietary investments; exchanges, asset

Thursday, April 7, 2011

Acid-Test Ratio Formula & Example

Definition: Acid-Test Ratio (also known as Quick ratio) is the ratio of the sum of quick assets (excluding stocks) to the current liabilities of a business.

Acid-Test Ratio = (Current Assets - Stock) / Current Liabilities
Acid-Test Ratio = (Cash + Bank + Debtors) / Current Liabilities

Example 1:
The following information relates to ABC Ltd. as at 31 December 2009:
Tangible fixed

Stock Brokers in Chicago

Following are some of the leading stock brokers with offices in Chicago, Illinois, USA:

optionsXpress - Founded in February of 2000, it is a pioneer in online stock, options and futures brokerage service to the self-directed investor. The company is a member of SIPC (the Securities Investor Protection Corporation), which protects against losses caused by the financial failure of the

Largest Banks in Mississippi

The top largest banks in Mississippi include BancorpSouth, Trustmark National Bank, Hancock Bank, Renasant Bank, among others.

BancorpSouth Bank is the largest banking operation based in Mississippi. On 6 January 2010, ranked BancorpSouth as the 24th "Best Bank in America".

Trustmark National Bank is the second largest bank in Mississippi. As of 31 March 2009, it has 172 branches and

Proprietary Ratio Formula & Example

Definition: Proprietary Ratio (also known as Equity Ratio or the Net Worth to Total Assets Ratio) is the proportion of shareholders' funds to total assets. A high ratio will indicate that the firm has sufficient amount of equity to support the functions of the business.

Proprietary Ratio = Shareholders funds / Total Assets
Proprietary Ratio = Shareholders' equity / Total tangible

Wednesday, April 6, 2011

Stock Brokers in Gurgaon

Some of the leading stock brokers in Gurgaon include FairWealth Securities Limited, Elite Stock Management Limited, HB Stockholdings Limited, among others.

FairWealth Securities Limited is a leading Indian Financial Services firm established in 2005 with an objective of becoming a financial powerhouse providing all financial solutions under one roof with dedicated customer service and commitment

Largest Banks in Louisiana

The top largest banks in Louisiana include Whitney Bank, IBERIABANK, First Nbc Bank, MidSouth Bank, among others.

Whitney Holding Corporation is a bank holding company headquartered in New Orleans, Louisiana. The Company's principal subsidiary is Whitney National Bank, which has been in continuous operation since 1883. Whitney Bank is Louisiana's largest bank.

IBERIABANK is the subsidiary of

Current Ratio Formula & Example

Definition: Current ratio (also known as working capital ratio) is the ratio of current assets of a company to its current liabilities. It is used to assess the working capital of a firm.

Current ratio = Current Assets / Current Liabilities

* Current assets are the assets which can either be converted to cash or used to pay current liabilities within one year. Current liabilities are

Different Types of Share Capital

What are the different types of share capital? A public limited company may have different types of shares carrying varying rights and conditions. See below:

1) Authorised Share Capital - This is also known as registered capital. It is the maximum amount of capital that the limited company is authorised to issue to its shareholders. However, the maximum amount can be changed by some legal

Tuesday, April 5, 2011

Top 50 Energy Companies

PetroChina, with a market capitalization of $353.1 billion, is ranked first among the top 50 energy companies in the world for 2009 based on market capitalization (by PFC Energy, a leading strategic advisory firm in global energy). ExxonMobil (XOM) in the United States dropped to second place from the previous year's ranking, followed by BHP Billiton in the third position globally.

PFC Energry’s

Largest Banks in Kentucky

The top largest banks in Kentucky include Forcht Bank, The Bank of Kentucky, Citizens First Corporation, Community Trust Bank, among others.

Forcht Bank, N.A. is among the top 10 largest bank groups headquartered in Kentucky. The Bank is named after the group's founder and CEO, Terry E. Forcht.

The Bank of Kentucky is one of the largest community banks in Northern Kentucky. It offers banking

Financial Leverage Ratio Analysis

Definition: Financial Leverage Ratio (also called long-term solvency ratio) is used to measure the firm's ability to repay its long-term debts. It gives an indication of the long-term solvency of the firm.

1) Debt to Equity = Total Debt / Total Equity
2) Total Debts to Assets = Total Liabilities / Total Assets
3) Interest Coverage Ratio = Earnings Before Interest and Taxes / Interest

Monday, April 4, 2011

Finance Companies in Sri Lanka

The top finance companies in Sri Lanka include Bartleet Finance Sri Lanka, The Finance Company PLC, Singer Finance (Lanka) Ltd, Arpico Finance Company PLC, to name a few.

Bartleet Finance Sri Lanka (BFSL) is highly regarded as one of the leading finance companies in the country. It was incorporated in 1983, under the Companies Act No.17 of 1982 and licensed by the Monetary Board of the Central

Best Banks in Canada

Following are the best and most prestigious banks in Canada:

Royal Bank of Canada (RBC) - It is Canada's largest and most stable bank as measured by assets and market capitalization. Global Finance Magazine named RBC the best bank in Canada in October 2008, and the safest bank in Canada from 1999-2008. It is also one of the world’s financial, social and environmental corporate leaders as on the

Top Largest Banks in Kansas

The top largest banks in Kansas include Denison State Bank, Capitol Federal Savings Bank, Equity Bank, among others.

Denison State Bank was incorporated in 1901. The Bank has a long history of serving as a safe and sound depository of public funds held by local schools and provider of numerous other financial services. On 31 December 2010, the bank reported total assets of $266 million, putting

Stock Brokers in Indore

The leading stock brokers in Indore include CapitalHeight Financial Services, Centrum, Ajcon Global Services Limited, Premium Global Securities Pvt. Ltd, among others.

CapitalHeight Financial Services is a leading Stock Advisory Company with a strong presence among all stock brokers and traders. The company provides Commodity Trading, Swing Trading, Future Trading and Option Trading in Stock,

Sunday, April 3, 2011

Efficiency Ratio Analysis & Example

Definition: Efficiency Ratios (also known as Activity ratios) are used to measure the effectiveness of the firm's use of resources.

1) Average Collection Period = (Average Trade Debtors / Credit Sales) * No. of Days
2) Average Payment Period = (Average Trade Creditors / Credit Purchases) * No. of Days
3) Inventory Turnover Ratio = Cost of goods sold / Average inventory held
4) Debtors

Top Largest Banks in Illinois

The top largest banks in Illinois are Northern Trust Co, Harris Bank, First Chicago Bank & Trust, First Midwest Bank, among others.

Founded in 1889, Northern Trust Corporation is the largest private bank trust company in the nation and is a multi-bank holding company headquartered in Chicago that offers personal financial services and corporate and institutional services through the

Stock Brokers in New York

Following are some of the leading stock brokers with offices in New York (USA):

Brill Securities, Inc. - It was established in 1987 as a full-service brokerage firm with the mission to provide clients with the best strategic investments based on timely research and industry expertise. The firm is registered as a broker-dealer with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The Brill Products

Advantages and Disadvantages of Futures

The advantages of trading futures contracts:

1) The commission charges for futures trading are relatively small as compared to other type of investments.

2) Futures contracts are highly leveraged financial instruments which permit achieving greater gains using a limited amount of invested funds.

3) It is possible to open short as well as long positions. Position can be reversed easily.


Saturday, April 2, 2011

Singapore Commodity Exchange Ltd

Founded in 1992, Singapore Commodity Exchange (SICOM) offers a highly trusted and efficient marketplace for commodity futures trading and clearing in Singapore. SICOM is governed by the Securities and Futures Act (SFA) and strictly abides by the codes of standards and disclosures regulated by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS).

The Exchange offers market participants the trading of rubber

Top Largest Banks in Hawaii

The top largest banks in Hawaii include First Hawaiian Bank, American Savings Bank, Bank of Hawaii, Central Pacific Bank, among others.

Founded in 1858, First Hawaiian Bank is Hawaii’s largest and oldest bank. Consistently ranked in the top tier of all U.S. banks, First Hawaiian is a full-service bank providing personal, private and business banking services including equipment leasing, mortgage

Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange

The Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange (MICEX) is one of the biggest universal stock exchanges in the Russian Federation and East Europe. In July 2008, MICEX became an associated member of the Futures Industry Association.

Achievements and Awards:

- In June 2000, MICEX was awarded the sponsor’s diploma for active participation in preparing and conducting the 4th St. Petersburg Economic Forum,

Stock Brokers in Chennai

The leading stock brokers in Chennai include Cholamandalam Securities Limited, Anush Shares & Securities (P) Ltd, Navia Markets Ltd, among others.

Cholamandalam Securities Limited (CSL) is a securities broking company providing stock broking and equity advisory services to institutional investors, including many of the largest mutual funds in India and individual clients across the country. It

Friday, April 1, 2011

Investment Ratio Analysis & Example

List of investment ratios and formulas:

1) Dividend cover = Profit after tax / dividends
2) Dividend yield = ( Dividend per share/ Market price per share ) * 100 %
3) Earnings per share (EPS) = Profit available to equity shareholders / Number of equity shares
4) Price earnings ratio (P/E) = Market price per share / Earnings per share
5) Price to sales ratio = Market price per share / Sales per

Best Foreign Exchange Banks

Following are some of the world's best foreign exchange banks:

Ahli United Bank B.S.C. (AUB) - It has been selected 'Best Foreign Exchange Bank in the Middle East 2011' by New York based Global Finance magazine, one of the global leading financial publications. This is the fifth consecutive year that AUB has been recognized as the best performing foreign exchange bank across the Middle East, a

Montreal Exchange (MX)

The Montreal Exchange (MX) is the oldest exchange in Canada, and is a fully electronic exchange dedicated to the development of the Canadian derivative markets. MX products include: Equity options, Options on ETFs, Currency options, Index derivatives, Interest rate derivatives, Energy derivatives.

MX provides individual and institutional investors with a broad range of risk management products

Stock Brokers in China

Following are some of the top leading stock brokers (broking companies) in China:

CLSA Asia-Pacific Markets - CLSA is highly regarded as the top ranked equity brokerage in Asia and one of the world's largest agency brokers. It is ranked within the top 10 brokers for programme execution for Asian equities and provides direct market access into Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Thailand